Polarization Vector

The polarization vector helps describe how much the charges are polarized. The polarization vector is a smoothed point function and represents the volume density of the electric Dipole Moment. It is defined mathematically by where is the Dipole Moment.

We can write as linearly proportional to the electric field intensity (assuming the dielectric properties of the medium are linear and isotropic):

is Electric Susceptibility

After some derivation from this above equation knowing about the Electric Flux Displacement Vector,