# p-value

The $p$-value is the probability of observing your evidence given that the null hypothesis $H_{0}$ is true.

### Convention

- $p<0.05$ strong support of $H_{1}$
- $p<0.01$ very strong support of $H_{1}$
- $p≥0.05$ insufficient evidence against $H_{0}$

**Level of significance** ($α$): $0.1$, $0.05$, $0.01$, etc. (this is domain specific)

In STAT206, the following are our conventions (very common). These values should be decided before the study is conducted:

- $p<0.05$:
- reject $H_{0}$
- fail to reject $H_1

- $p≥0.05$
- fail to reject $H_{0}$
- reject $H_{1}$

How do you calculate the p-value?