This is on the F1TENTH car.

A differential can be found in pretty much any motor vehicle with wheels and a single engine. A differential serves as the final link in the powertrain of a vehicle just before the wheels.

Differential is a vital mechanism that allows the rear tires to spin at different rates (hence the name differential) incase the tires are on different surfaces or experience different forces.

The name differential comes from the fact

This is an amazing video to understand differentials: Around The Corner - How Differential Steering Works (1937) - YouTube