# Circuit

A electrical circuit is a closed loop where electrons can flow through. They are used to power things from our microwave to our computer.

Ideal Circuit elements: Used to model real physical components

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## Series vs. Parallel Connection

### Series Connection

Two elements are called connected in series if they are the only two elements connected to a node. Series connected elements have the same current ().

### Parallel Connection

Two or more elements are connected in parallel if they are connected between the same two nodes. Parallel-connected elements have the same voltage.

## Active vs. Passive Components

https://www.escomponents.com/blog/2019/7/31/active-amp-passive-components-what-is-the-difference-between-the-two

### Passive Components

Passive components are made to receive energy from active components. They do not require any form of external electrical power to operate.

List of passive components:

### Active Components

Electronic component that supplies energy to a circuit.

Common examples of active components include:

• Voltage sources
• Current sources
• Generators (such as alternators and DC generators)
• Transistor
• Diode

## Sources

### Dependent/controlled sources

Electronic devices (such as transistors or amplifiers) are modeled by a dependent / controlled voltage source.

• A diamond shape is used to indicate a dependent source.

## Circuit Elements and Diagrams

We use circuit diagrams to provide a more abstract picture of reality in analyzing and describing circuits. A circuit diagram is a logical picture of what is connected to what.